Harvard's Mark I, is built by Howard H. Aiken and his team at Harvard
University. The machine is 51 feet long, weighs 5 tons, and has 750,000
computer bug, a moth, is found inside the Harvard’s Mark II
while it was being tested. Researchers told colleagues they had
"debugged" the machine, which lead to the concept of "debugging a computer
image for full picture)
general-purpose electronic computer,
the ENIAC, is completed at the Ballistic Research Laboratory, by John W.
Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert. It weighs 30 tons and can do 100,000
calculations per second.
transistor, a solid-state
amplifier made of germanium, plastic and gold, is invented by Walter
Brattain and John Bardeen in a series of experiments conducted between
November 17 and December 23.
33-rpm record is invented.
45-rpm record is invented.
computer, the EDSAC, is built.
Quote of the Year: “Where a calculator on
the ENIAC is equipped with 19,000 vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons,
computers in the future may only have 1,000 vacuum tubes and perhaps weigh
only 1.5 tons.”
–Popular Mechanics, March, 1949
floppy disk is invented by
Doctor Yoshiro Nakamatsu, at the Imperial University in Tokyo. The sales
license for the disk is granted to IBM.
commercial computer, UNIVAC-1, is sold commercially. The
computer is designed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, and is able to
process both numeric and textual information.
mass-produced transistor radio
is launched by Sony (at the time
called “Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo LTD.”).
hard drive, IBM’s RAMAC 305,
is introduced, consisting of 50 twenty-four inch diameter platters with a
total storage capacity of 5 MB.
integrated circuit is separately and simultaneously invented by
Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild
Semiconductor. This enables a circuit consisting of capacitors, resistors
and transistors to be fashioned out of a single crystal.
compact cassette tape is
introduced by Phillips Company of the Netherlands.
ASCII code is developed by
Robert W. Bemer of American National Standards Institute. The code
assigns standard numerical values to all characters on the keyboard,
enabling computers that have otherwise nothing in common to communicate
with one another.
computer mouse is invented by
Douglas Engelbart. The device is not widely used until it is adopted by
Apple Computers in 1983 and by IBM in 1987.
The digital compact disc is
invented by American physicist James T. Russell. The system records and
replays sound using light. (The spelling of “disc” with a “c” is chosen
and included in the patent. “Floppy disk” and “hard disk” are spelt with
eight-track tape is introduced
as an option on certain Ford and Mercury luxury cars. Developed in
conjunction with Motorola and RCA-Victor records, eight-track tapes become
the first successful form of tape-based recorded music, until their
discontinuation in the early 1980’s.
of what will become the Internet
is born when the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the U.S.
Dept. of Defense awards Bolt, Beranek, and Newman Inc. (BBN) a contract to
develop the backbone of packet switches for ARPAnet. The system
had four main hubs: the Universities of California in Santa Barbara and
Los Angeles, the University of Utah, and SRI International. A researcher
is now able to sit at a computer in one of these hubs and download data
from computers at any of the other hubs.
email program is created by
Ray Tomlinson of BBN. The @ sign was chosen to mean "at" in the address.
HBO invents pay-TV service for
Atari is founded (as Syzygy) by
Nolan Bushnell, who also designed “Pong.”
FTP, or File Transfer Protocol,
is developed for ARPAnet. FTP is still used to send and retrieve files
across the Internet.
Ethernet is designed by Bob
Metcalfe. The system describes the set of rules by which computers on
local area networks send and receive information to one another.
protocol later to be called TCP/IP
(Transmission Control Program/Internet Protocol) is outlined by
Robert Kahn of DARPA and Vinton Cerf of Stanford in a paper called “A
Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection.” The paper is also the first
use of the term “Internet”
Microsoft is founded by Bill
Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975.
Betamax video recorder is
introduced by Sony.
term "personal computer" is
coined Ed Roberts to describe an early personal computer called the
VHS format VCR is introduced by
JVC to consumers in Japan for $885.
Apple Computer is created
Steven Jobs and Steven Wozniak on April 1, 1976 in a California garage.
Quote of the Year: "There is
no reason anyone would want
a computer in their home."
--Ken Olson, President, Chairman and Founder,
of Digital Equipment Corp.
Laserdisc is developed by
Pioneer. They were first used by General Motors to train Cadillac
salesmen, and not sold for home use until 1980.
Sony Walkman portable audio
cassette player is introduced by Sony.
global standard for CDs is
proposed by Sony and Philips.
IBM PC is sold
DOS (Disc Operating System)
is created by Microsoft.
laptop computers are sold to
commercial CD, Billy Joel's
52nd Street, is released by Sony Music.
Sun Microsystems is founded.
cellular phone network is
started in the United States.
is named "Man of the Year"
by Time Magazine.
I: The Dark Ages: When Time Stood Still
II: Dawn of the Computer Age
III: Dawn of the Internet
IV: The Rise of (and Battle Over) the MP3
V: Life After Napster